FinELib strikes open access deal with Frontiers


The agreement allows participating institutions to benefit from a 10% national discount, streamlined submission and payment workflows, and other benefits.

The FinELib and Frontiers have announced a new three-year (2022-2024) open access agreement. The agreement is the FinELib's first with a fully open access publisher and allows participating institutions to choose from three invoicing schemes (invoiced individually, monthly, or prepayment).

While making it easier for authors to publish their work open access, the agreement also allows institutions to remain in full control as each APC will be verified before being paid. Further benefits include frozen maximum APCs for the duration of the agreement and improved transparency of OA expenditure through detailed reports.

Read Frontiers' press release here.

Participating institutions:

  • Aalto University
  • University of Lapland
  • National Defence University (incl. the military schools)
  • Tampere University including Tampere University Hospital
  • Abo Akademi University
  • Laurea University of Applied Sciences
  • Tampere University of Applied Sciences
  • Natural Resources Institute Finland
  • VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland

FinELib pledges to support arXiv


FinELib and arXiv have signed a three-year (20222024) agreement through which six new Finnish universities have committed to funding arXiv, currently promoted by SCOSS (The Global Sustainability Coalition for Open Science Services) in its third funding cycle.

arXiv is a curated open platform and open access archive that currently hosts over 2 million scholarly articles.

Maintained by Cornell Tech and founded three decades ago, arXiv covers eight major subject areas including physics, mathematics, computer science, quantitative biology, quantitative finance, statistics, electrical engineering and systems science, and economics.

The agreement is a testimony to the importance of arXiv to the Finnish and global scientific community.

Participating Institutions:

  • Abo Akademi University
  • Tampere University
  • Tampere University of Applied Sciences
  • University of Eastern Finland
  • University of Jyväskylä
  • University of Turku

Cell Press agreement enables open access publishing


FinELib and Elsevier have signed a Read and Publish agreement for Cell Press journals for the term 2022–2024.

With the new agreement, researchers affiliated with the participating organisations can publish their articles open access without extra costs in about 40 Cell Press hybrid journals in the field of medical and natural sciences.

The agreement covers 10 FinELib member organisations, who yearly have published about 30 articles in total in Cell Press hybrid journals.

In addition, the agreement allows researchers and students to access Cell Press journals subscribed by the organisations.

More information on how to publish open access in Cell Press journals

The license agreement 2022-2024

More and more scientific articles available to all


Researchers from Finnish universities and research institutions, can publish their articles open access thanks to the FinELib Consortium agreements. A total of 2929 open articles were published in 2020. The number of open access articles increases as more and more researchers utilise the open access benefits included in the consortium agreements. You can track the yearly development in the number of open access articles on FinELib’s new web page.

FinELib's website summarizes by publisher how many open access articles, have been published with the help of the scholarly journal agreements negotiated by the consortium. The information covers the number of open access articles since 2017, when the FinELib consortium first started negotiating agreements covering open access publishing.

FinELib agreements give researchers the right to publish articles open access free of charge or with a reduced article processing charge. The reduced charges are typically associated with fully open access journals. There are currently 12 agreements that contain an open access benefit. In 2020, the Finnish research community published altogether 5120 articles in the scholarly journals covered by the agreements, of which nearly 60% as open access articles. In the future researchers will be able to publish all their articles open access in many scholarly journals, with the benefits included in FinELib agreements.

FinELib has been able to negotiate an increasing number of agreements that contain terms for open access publishing as well as better terms for existing agreements.  More and more articles can be published open access in the future. The aim is that all research results are published open access at a reasonable cost, and agreements would be used to pay for open access publishing only and not for reading. Once full openness has been achieved, all research results are freely available to the entire scientific community and to citizens.

On FinELib’s Open Publications page, you can follow the number of articles published open access.

Follow-up of open publication elsewhere:

Open Science Monitor on the European Union website

Briefing Paper on Open Access Monitoring on Science Europe website

Open APC - a project that contains the author fee information of organizations in multiple countries


FinELib agreements open the results of science for all


FinELib consortium concludes journal package agreements, which promote the openness of science, with scientific publishers. The goal is that the agreements cover the Article Processing Charges (APC) on behalf of the authors. In 2020, FinELib agreements enabled the publishing of nearly 2900 Finnish Open Access articles in the journals of various publishers.

In 2020 FinELib had 11 journal package agreements which enabled Open Access publishing of articles for the authors without APC or with a discounted APC. Thanks to the agreements about 2900 articles were published – 65% more than during the previous year.

During 2020, new agreements were negotiated for 2021 to increase the number of Open Access articles. The expectation is that the number of Open Access articles will double during the year 2021:

* estimate

Agreements covered an increasing number of articles

Depending on the publisher, the FinELib agreements contain different kinds of Open Access benefits for the subscribing organisations.

All article processing charges were covered by the subscription fees of three journal package agreements: Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC), SAGE Premier and SCOAP3.

Springer Compact agreement was estimated to cover all Open Access articles, but publishing was so active that by December the benefits were used up.

100% Open Access publishing was not achieved in all journal packages. However, subscription fees covered the majority of the articles also in the following journal packages:

  • Wiley Online Library
  • Taylor & Francis Social Science & Humanities and Science & Technology
  • American Chemical Society (ACS)
  • Emerald Premier

Based on the FinELib agreement, researchers could have published a large part of their articles Open Access in the Wolters Kluwer Lippincott journals. However, only a few researchers used Open Access publishing benefit because the publisher's publication process made Open Access publishing difficult.

Resources with discounts on APC’s in 2020 were Elsevier SD Freedom (50% discount) and Science Advances (15% discount).

The various Open Access benefits described above affect the number of Open Access articles of all articles published in the journals covered by the agreements:

The share of Open Access articles published in the journals covered by the FinELib agreements in 2020.

Free Open Access publishing for researchers is increasing rapidly

As a result of the 2020 negotiations distinctly better Open Access benefits were achieved with Elsevier, Emerald and ACS in the new agreements that started in January 2021.

It is estimated that the Elsevier subscription fee will cover Open Access publishing of all articles from researchers of the subscribing organisations in the journals included in the agreement.

The subscription fees of Emerald and ACS now cover a distinctly larger part of the Open Access articles than during the year 2020: on the part of ACS, approximately all articles starting January 2021. On the part of Emerald, the same will be achieved in 2022.

Furthermore, with IEEE and Oxford University Press agreements containing Open Access publishing were successfully negotiated: for both, the subscription fee will cover approximately 100% of future articles.

In Wiley, Emerald, SAGE, ACS, and IEEE agreements Open Access publishing benefits cover both hybrid and fully Open Access journals. In other agreements, Open Access publishing is limited to hybrid journals only.

The Open Access benefits negotiated by FinELib are found here: Take Advantage of OA Benefits.

See more about FinELib agreements: Agreements.

Towards Open Access with transformative agreements


FinELib consortium promotes open access publishing by concluding so-called transformative agreements with scientific publishers.

FinELib has negotiated transformative agreements for the following resources:

  • American Chemical Society (ACS)
  • Elsevier SD Freedom
  • Emerald Premier
  • IEEE Electronic Library (IEL)
  • Oxford Journals
  • RSC Read & Publish (Royal Society of Chemistry)
  • SAGE Premier
  • SCOAP3
  • Springer Compact
  • Taylor & Francis Library
  • Wiley Online Library

Transformative agreements are agreements between organizations or consortia and publishers. Their purpose is to:

  • switch from a business model based on subscription fees to a business model based on open access publishing services

  • move subscription fees to cover costs of open access publishing

  • function as transitional agreements when moving from subscription based agreements to open access publishing agreements

  • make the terms and conditions of agreements public

  • control the growth of total costs

  • make open access publishing possible for researchers with CC BY license which allows extensive reuse

  • enable a publication process which serves the needs of researchers and research organizations.

Open access publishing of research publications is directed by the policy of cOAlition S funders, Plan S Principles, and the policy of Finland's research community, Declaration for Open Science and Research. The latter commits the key Finnish research organizations to promoting openness of European science.

Open access publishing of research publications is directed by the policy of cOAlition S funders, Plan S Principles, and the policy of Finland's research community, Declaration for Open Science and Research. The latter commits the key Finnish research organizations to promoting openness of European science.

The cOAlition S funders (among others, Academy of Finland) require in Plan S that researchers make their scientific publications openly available to everybody.

One way, to fill the requirements of Plan S is to publish in a journal included in a transformative agreement. When defining the contents of agreements of this kind, cOAlition S refers to the ESAC’s (Efficiency and Standards for Article Charges) description of transformative agreements.

Transformative agreements may contain individual journals, which do not meet the requirements of Plan S, for example, because the journal does not offer the CC BY license.

cOAlition S has published Journal Checker Tool to help researchers evaluate which publication channels fulfil the requirements of Plan S.

More information on agreements at FinELib’s agreements page.

Final report of the FinELib's APC-project out now!


The report is the result of a project undertaken by the FinELib consortium in 2019–2020 to explore the motivations and challenges associated with the monitoring of APC (Article Processing Charge) expenditure among its member organisations.

The report is in Finnish but contains an Executive Summary in English which summarises the key conclusions of the project while also highlighting some of the actions Finnish institutions and stakeholders are urged to take to further promote the monitoring of APCs.

The report (Kirjoittajamaksut ja niiden seuranta: havaintoja ja kehitysehdotuksia) can be accessed here.

For more information, please contact:

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FinELib reaches Read & Publish agreement with OUP


Oxford University Press (OUP) and FinELib, a consortium of Finnish universities, research institutions, and public libraries, have reached an agreement for Read & Publish access to OUP’s journals collection.

The agreement came into effect on 1 January 2021 and lasts for 3 years. It allows scholars at participating universities and research institutions to both access research published in OUP’s journal collection and to publish their research output open access in hybrid journals published by OUP.

Arja Tuuliniemi, Head of Services at FinELib, said, "We are pleased to have reached this new agreement that allows authors in the 11 participating institutions to publish their work OA at no additional charge and in compliance with Plan S and Finnish national OA policies. We look forward to collaborating with OUP to provide smooth processes to our members and to make Finnish research more accessible and sustainable".

Rhodri Jackson, Publishing Director for Open Access at OUP, said, "I am delighted to have reached this agreement with our colleagues at FinELib. I’m really pleased that we will be able to provide Finnish scholars with fair and sustainable access to and open access publishing options across our quality journal portfolio, and look forward to working with FinELib over the next three years to further open access publishing".

For more information on how to publish OA in OUP's hybrid journals, click here.

For more information on the agreement, click here.

About FinELib

FinELib is a consortium of Finnish higher education institutions, research institutes, and public libraries. We negotiate e-resource license agreements for the Finnish scholarly community and are committed to achieving full and immediate open access in line with Finland’s OA policy.

We currently have multiple transformative agreements in place, allowing Finnish authors to publish their research OA in thousands of journals.


About Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press is the largest university press publisher of open access research. We publish over 80 fully open access journals, more than 100 open access monographs, and offer an open access publishing option on over 400 journals. Since 2004, we have published over 70,000 open access papers across all major subject areas and publish more than 1,250 OA articles per month.

Oxford University Press has been publishing journals for more than a century and has more than 500 years of publishing expertise.

Science journals still in use for consortium


American Association for the Advancement of Science and FinELib consortium have made an agreement on the use of Science-journals. The agreement covers the period Dec 11th 2020 - Dec 3rd 2021. The contents of the agreement corresponds to the previous one-year-agreement.


Science journals are leading scientific journals, for example, in biology, translational medicine, immunology and robotics. The organizations taking part in the agreement will have the right to use all or part of the five respected peer-reviewed journals according to their choice. In addition, the agreement contains discount on article processing charges in the journal Science Advances.

More information on the agreement
Discount on APC fees in Science Advances

APC benefits increase open publishing


Openly published scientific articles are freely available to anybody on the internet. In 2019, 1751 articles were published Open Access in the journals of several publishers through  agreements negotiated by the FinELib consortium.

Last year FinELib had nine journal package agreements, containing  the right to publish articles Open Access for free  or with discounted Article Processing Charge (APC). The amount of articles published through the agreements increased by 73% compared with the previous year.

Towards open access

Both in Finland and internationally there is an increasingly strong drive towards agreements enabling the OA publishing of all articles without charging authors article processing charges. In 2019 cOAlition S funders published Plan S to promote openness in scientific publishing. Academy of Finland is one of the funders. Plan S requires that scientific articles funded by cOAlition S must be immediately openly available Open with extensive usage rights  from 2021 onwards.

The goal of the Finnish research community’s program of action, Open Access to Scholarly Publications, is that all new scientific article and conference publications are immediately openly available in 2022 at the latest.

Transitional agreements, which enable OA publishing, are one of the central ways to carry out these objectives. Furthermore, the agreements strive to effect a rapid change towards the fall of journal paywalls  and towards OA becoming the new normal of scientific publishing. Several countries around the world are now concluding transitional agreements. Information about them is gathered to the ESAC Transformative Agreement Registry.

Getting rid of the article processing charges

FinELib agreements guarantee various APC benefits  depending on the publisher. Some agreements enable OA publishing in hybrid journals, in others there are also benefits to fully open journals.

The agreements with Royal Society of Chemistry and SAGE cover the OA publishing of all articles published by the subscribing organizations. Springer Compact agreement made it possible to publish all articles Open Access in 2019 and in 2020 the coverage will probably be close to a hundred percent. Wiley agreement will presumably enable the OA publishing of nearly all articles in 2021.

Taylor & Francis, Emerald, American Chemical Society (ACS) and Lippincott agreements contain a fixed amount of OA articles published without additional costs. The downside of these agreements is that for the rest of the articles the researchers must pay APCs or otherwise they will be published behind paywall.

Also the discounted model (FinELib agreement does not cover the whole APC) results in the researcher having to make further payment to the publisher. The Elsevier agreement, for example, provides the researchers with a 50% discount on APCs to publish an Open Access article.

Another example for a funding model for OA publishing is the SCOAP3 consortium. In this model, researchers regardless of the country can publish articles on high energy physics openly in the journals part of the cooperation. The costs are covered by the international consortium, which also Finland is part of.

The various models affect the number of articles published Open Access in the journals covered by the agreements.

Overview of the open access articles covered by FinELib agreements

* the OA benefit of the AAAS Science Journals agreement is limited to publishing in Science Advances journal only
* agreed open access benefit: gratis articles per year or discounted APC

Better publishing process, more open articles

The fluency of the publishing process affects significantly how uncomplicated OA publishing is for the researcher. The benefit negotiated by FinELib may remain unused if the researcher does not get enough information about it during the publishing process. In the FinELib negotiations, attempts are made to affect the publishing process so that OA publishing will be easy for the researcher.

Only last year the SAGE agreement gave the researchers a considerable discount on the APC. However, the discount was not used since the publisher did not notify the authors of the discount. This was clearly seen in SAGE’s article numbers: in 2019 only 10% of the authors entitled to the discount used it. The new FinELib agreement for the years 2020–2022 covers a hundred percent of the APCs and, among others, there are improvements in the publishing process related to identifying the authors.

The Lippincott journal package agreement contains a fixed number of OA articles, that can be published without extra costs. Ovid’s publishing process does not support OA publishing and the authors are not given enough information on the benefits of OA publishing during the publishing process. Because of this, nearly all free articles included in the FinELib agreement have remained unused.

Reuse rights of Open Access articles

Creative Common licenses are generally used for OA publishing. The license defines how users can utilize the articles. The science funders of cOAlition S require mainly the use of CC BY license, which enables the extensive use of the articles. It is only natural that research funded by the taxpayers can be widely utilized by the whole society.

The selection of licenses varies by publisher and journal title. Some only use CC BY, others offer primarily more restricted CC licenses. FinELib negotiations  aim to guarantee researchers affiliated to Finnish research organizations the right to publish their articles using the CC BY license.

In 2019, 1751 articles were published through FinELib agreements. In 1361 of them, the researcher had chosen the CC BY license. If the publisher offers several licensing options, the researcher is likely to be affected by how the options are presented in the publisher’s system. If the researcher chooses the non-commercial CC BY NC license, the commercial use rights are often left to the publisher and not to the researcher.


Who can use the OA benefits?

The OA benefits can be used by the corresponding author affiliated to the organization which is part of the FinELib agreement if the author is publishing an article in a journal covered by the FinELib agreement. In SCOAP3 journals, the article can be published OA if it is about high energy physics.

The OA benefits negotiated by FinELib can be found on the Take Advantage of OA Benefits pages.